UCL School of Life Sciences and Medicine



Selected images
(Click on image for large version)

Perivascular nerves of mesenteric artery.


A small artery in the human brain, labelling for eNOS (red).


Local aneurism in mesenteric artery.


Artherosclerotic coronary artery.

Image Galleries

Vessel structure and cerebral endothelium

Endothelial vasoactive agents and receptors

Injured vessels, platelets and leukocytes

Perivascular nerves

Andrzej Loesch
Professor of Medical Sciences

Visitor to Division of Medicine
Royal Free Campus
University College London
Rowland Hill Street
London NW3 2PF, UK

Email: a.loesch@ucl.ac.uk              aloesch@talktalk.net

Selected Publications

(regular articles, reviews, letters, book chapters)

Dashwood MR, Loesch A (2017) Neointima development in externally stented saphenous vein grafts. External stents are bad for the patient: why not use an undamaged saphenous vein for coronary artery bypass graft? Advances in Interventional Cardiology 13(1):90–91. Letter.

Gomes SP, da Silva AAP, Crisma AR, Borelli P, Hernandez-Blazquez FJ, de Melo MP, Bacci B, Loesch A, Coppi AA (2017) Stereology shows that damaged liver recovers after protein refeeding. Nutrition 38:61-69.

Burnstock G, Loesch A (2017) Sympathetic innervation of the kidney in health and disease: Emphasis on the role of purinergic cotransmission. Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical. 204:4-16. Review. [Epub 2016 May 31].

Loesch A, Dashwood MR (2016) Three arteries versus the saphenous vein for coronary artery bypass graft: Why use a damaged graft to repair a damaged heart? Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 152(5):1460-1462. Letter.

Loesch A (2016) A brief comment on cerebrovascular innervation: relevance to brain disease. Current Neurobiology 7(2):59-61.

Milde R, Ritter J, Tennent GA, Loesch A, Martinez FO, Gordon S, Pepys MB, Verschoor A, Helming L (2015) Multinucleated giant cells are specialized for complement-mediated phagocytosis and large target destruction. Cell Reports 13(9):1937–1948.

Dashwood MR, Loesch A (2014) Inducible nitric oxide synthase and vein graft performance in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery: physiological or pathophysiological role? Current Vascular Pharmacology 12(1):144-151. Review.

Loesch A, Dashwood MR, Coppi AA (2013) Immunoreactive endothelin-1 and endothelin ETA receptor in basilar artery perivascular nerves of young and adult capybaras. Cells Tissues Organs 198(1):47-56.

Dreifaldt M, Souza D, Bodin L, Shi-Wen X, Dooley A, Muddle J, Loesch A, Dashwood M (2012) The vasa vasorum and associated endothelial nitric oxide synthase is more important for saphenous vein than arterial bypass grafts. Angiology 64(4):293-299.

Dashwood MR, Crump A, Shi-Wen X, Loesch A (2011) Identification of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in human penis: a potential role of reduced neuronally-derived nitric oxide in erectile dysfunction. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 12(9):1316-1321.

Coppi AA, Loesch A (2011) Stereological estimation of dendritic coverage in capybara SCG.  Current Neurobiology 2(2):93-95. 

Dashwood MR, Loesch A (2011) Does perivascular fat influence neural control of the saphenous vein? Implications in coronary artery bypass surgery. Mini-review. Current Neurobiology 2(1):71-74. 

Dreifaldt M, Souza DSR, Loesch A, Muddle JR, Karlsson MG, Filbey D, Bodin L, Norgren L, Dashwood MR (2011) The “No touch” harvesting technique for vein grafts in coronary artery bypass surgery preserves an intact vasa vasorum. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 141(1):145:150.

Bodin K, Ellmerich S, Kahan MC,Tennent GA, Loesch A, Gilbertson JA, Hutchinson WL, Mangione PP, Gallimore R, Millar DJ, Minogue S, Dhillon AP, Taylor GW, Bradwell AR, Petrie A, Gillmore JD, Bellotti V, Botto M, Hawkins PN, Pepys MB (2010) Antibodies to human serum amyloid P component eliminate visceral amyloid deposits. Nature 468:93–97, doi:10.1038/nature09494

Tennent GA, Loesch A, Kahan M, Bodin K, Ellmerich S, Minogue S, Pepys MB (2010) Macrophage dependent elimination of amyloid following treatment with anti-SAP antibody. 12th International Symposium on Amyloidosis from Molecular Mechanisms Toward the Cure of Systemic Amyloidoses, APR 18-21, 2010 Rome, ITALY. Amyloid J Protein Folding Disorder 17: 51-51 (Suppl 1).

Loesch A, Mayhew TM, Tang H, Ladd FVL, Ladd AABL, de Melo MP, da Silva AAP, Coppi AA (2010) Stereological and allometric studies on neurons and axo-dendritic synapses in the superior cervical ganglia of rats, capybaras and horses. Cell and Tissue Research. 341:223-237.

Loesch A, Tang H, Cotter MA, Cameron NE (2010) Sciatic nerve of diabetic rat treated with epoetin delta: effects on C-fibres and blood vessels including pericytes. Angiology. 61:651-668.

Johansson BL, Souza DSR, Bodin L, Filbey D, Loesch A, Geijer H, Bojö L (2010) Slower progression of atherosclerosis in vein grafts harvested with “no touch” technique compared to conventional harvesting technique in coronary artery bypass grafting: an angiographic and intravascular ultrasound study. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 38(4):414-419.

Hall AM, Campanella M, Loesch A, Duchen MR, Unwin RJ (2010) Albumin uptake in OK cells exposed to rotenone: a model for studying the effects of mitochondrial dysfunction on endocytosis in the proximal tubule? Nephron Physiology 115:9-19.

Dashwood MR, Loesch A (2010) Does denervation affect the performance of blood vessels used as coronary artery bypass grafts? A mini-review. Current Neurobiology 1(1):46-50.

Loesch A, Tang H, Cotter MA, Cameron NE (2010) The endothelium of basilar artery of diabetic rat treated with epoetin delta. Angiology 61:405-414.

Dashwood MR, Loesch A (2010) Endothelin-1 as a neuropeptide: neurotransmitter or neurovascular effects? Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling. Review. 4(1):51-62. 

Loesch A, Dashwood MR (2009) On the sympathetic innervation of the human greater saphenous vein: relevance to clinical practice. Phlebology Digest (Elsevier). 22(2):22-24.

Loesch A, Unwin R, Gandhi V, Burnstock G (2009) Sympathetic nerve varicosities in close apposition to basolateral membranes of collecting duct epithelial cells of rat kidney. Nephron Physiology 113:15-21.

Kolman P, Pica A, Carvou N, Boyde A, Cockcroft S, Loesch A, Pizzey A, Simeoni M, Capasso G, Unwin RJ. (2009) Insulin uptake across the luminal membrane of the rat proximal tubule in vivo and in vitro. Americal Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology 296:F1227-F1237.

Simons JP, Shawi RA, Minogue S, Waugh MG, Wiedemann C, Evangelou S, Loesch A, Sihra TS, King R, Warner TT, Hsuan JJ (2009) Loss of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase 2alpha activity causes late onset degeneration of spinal cord axons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106:11535-11539.

Loesch A, Dashwood MR (2009) Neural control of the vasculature: pharmacological targets in vascular disease. Current Vascular Pharmacology 7:1-2. Editorial.

Loesch A, Dashwood MR (2009) On the sympathetic innervation of the human greater saphenous vein: relevance to clinical practice. Current Vascular Pharmacology 7:58-67. Review.

Dashwood MR, Loesch A (2009) The saphenous vein as a bypass conduit: the potential role of vascular nerves in graft performance. Current Vascular Pharmacology 7:47-57. Review.

Toscano CP, de Melo MP, Matera JLM, Loesch A, Ribeiro AACM (2009) The developing and restructuring superior cervical ganglion of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus var. albina). International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 27:329-336.

Cavalcanti RA, da Pureza DY, de Melo MP, de Souza RR, Bergamaschi CT, do Amaral SL, Tang H, Loesch A, Ribeiro AACM (2009) Low-intensity treadmil exercise-related changes in the rat stellate ganglion neurons. Journal of Neuroscience Research 87:1334-1342.

Loesch A, Cowen T (2008) On the presence of neurotrophin p75 receptor on rat sympathetic cerebrovascular nerves. Journal of Molecular Histology 39:57-68.

Guidi WL, Balieiro JCC, de Souza RR, Loesch A, Ribeiro AACM (2008) Diabetes mellitus-related morphoquantitative changes in the dog's celiac ganglion neurons. Veterinary Journal 177:54-62.

Athanasiou A, Clarke AB, Tumer AE, Kumaran NM, Vakilpour S, Smith PA, Bragshaw TD, Westwell AD, Fang L, Lobo DN, Constantinescu CS, Calabrese V, Loesch A, Alexander CP, Clothire RH, Kendall DA, Bates TE (2007) Cannabinoid receptor agonists are mitochondrial inhibitors: a unified hypothesis of how cannabinoids modulate mitochondrial function and induce cell death. Biochemical Biophysical Research Communications 364:131-137.

Dashwood MR, Loesch A (2007) Surgical damage of the saphenous vein and graft patency. Letter to the Editor. Journal of Thoracic Cardiovascular Surgery 133:274-275.

Dashwood M, Loesch A, Filbey D, Dreifaldt M, Souza D (2007) Improved saphenous vein graft patency in coronary artery bypass patients: the contribution of an intact vasa vasorum. In: Lewis BA, Halon DA, Flugelman MY (Eds) New Horizons in Coronary Artery Disease. Medimond S. r. l., International Proceedings, Monduzzi Editore, Bologna, pp. 193-197.

Loesch A, Dashwood MR Fernández-Alonso MS (2007) Improved saphenous vein graft patency for CABG: "no-touch" harvesting or "dissection without touching". Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 134:819-820. Letter to the Editor.

Dashwood MR, Loesch A (2007) Surgical damage of the saphenous vein and graft patency. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 133: 274-275. Letter to the Editor.

Steele C, Fioretto ET, Sasahara THC, Guidi WI, de Lima AR, Ribeiro ACM, Loesch A (2006) On the atrophy of the internal carotid artery in capybara. Cell and Tissue Research 326:737-748.

Loesch A, Dashwood MR, Souza DSR (2006) Does the method of harvesting the saphenous vein for coronary artery bypass surgery affect venous smooth muscle cells? iNOS immunolabelling and ultrastructural findings. International Journal of Surgery 4:20-29.

Loesch A, Glass R (2006) Electron Microscopy and In Situ Hybridisation: Expression of P2Y2 Receptor mRNA in the Cerebellum. In: Darby IA, Hewitson TD (Eds.) Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 326: In Situ Hybridization Protocols, Third Edition, Humana Press Inc. Totowa, NJ, pp. 151-162.

Loesch A (2005) Localisation of endothelin-1 and its receptors in vascular tissue as seen at the electron microscopic level. Current Vascular Pharmacology 3:381-392. Review.

Koshi R, Coutinho-Silva R, Cascalbulho CM, Henrique-Pons A, Knight GE, Loesch A, Burnstock G (2005) Presence of the P2X7 purinergic receptor on immune cells that invade the rat endomrtrium during oestrus. Journal of Reproductive Immunology 66:127-140.

Loesch A, Gajkowska B, Dashwood MR, Fioretto ET, Gagliardo KM, de Lima AR, Ribeiro AACM (2005) Endothelin-1 and endothelin receptors in the basilar artery of the capybara. Journal of Molecular Histology 36:25-34.

Daley E, Wilkie D, Loesch A, Hargreaves IP, Kendall DK, Pilklington GJ, Bates TE (2005) Chlorimipramine: A novel anticancer agent with mitochondrial target. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 328:623-632.

Loesch A, Kilford L, Kingsbury A (2004) Endothelin in Schwann cells of middle cerebral artery in a case of multiple system atrophy with autonomic failure. Biomedical Research (India) 15: 157-159.

Dashwood M, Anand R, Loesch A, Souza D (2004) Surgical trauma and vein graft failure: further evidence for role of ET-1 in graft occlusion. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 43: (Suppl 1):S1-SS4.

Vasilakis V, Dashwood MR, Souza DSR, Loesch A (2004) Human Saphenous vein and coronary bypass surgery: scanning electron microscopy of conventional and 'no-touch' vein grafts. Vascular Disease Prevention 1:133-139.

Ahmed SR, Johansson BL, Karlsson MG, Souza DSR, Dashwood MR, Loesch A (2004) Human saphenous vein and coronary bypass surgery: ultrastructural aspects of conventional and 'no-touch' vein graft preparations. Histology and Histopathology 19:421-433.

Islam S, Ribeiro AACM, Loesch A (2004) Basilar artery of the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris): an ultrastructuctural study. Anatomia Histologia Embriologia 33:81-89.

Vonend O, Turner CM, Chan CM, Loesch A, Dell'Anna GC, Srai KS, Burnstock G, Unwin RJ (2004) Glomerular expression of the ATP-sensitive P2X receptor in diabetic and hypertensive rat models. Kidney International 66:157-166.

Dashwood MR, Anand R, Loesch A, Souza DSR (2004) Hypothesis: a potential role for the vasa vasorum in the maintenance of vein graft patency. Angiology 55:385-395. Review.

Loesch A (2003) Nitric oxide synthase and endothelin in cerebrovascular nerves of the basilar artery in pregnant rat. Biomedical Research (India), Special Edition: Autonomic Nervous System 14:1-5.

Dashwood MR, Anand R, Loesch A, Souza DSR (2003) Vasa vasorum: a system for transporting vasoactive factors in human saphenous vein? The Journal of Physiology (Microvascular & Endothelial Physiology Abstracts) 547P:PC57.

Dashwood RM, Anand R, Loesch A, Filbey D, Karlsson M, Souza DSR (2003) Improved vein graft patency using a novel no-touch technique is due to preserved nitric oxide synthase. In: Lewis BS, Halon DA, Flugelman MY, GensinyGF (Eds) Frontiers in Coronary Artery Disease. Monduzzi Editore, Bologna, pp. 339-342.

Mickey I, Kilford L, Kingsbury A, Loesch A (2002) Endothelin in the middle cerebral artery: A case of multiple system atrophy. The Histochemical Journal 34: 769-477.

Mukherjee AB, Loesch A (2002) Co-localisation of nitric oxide synthase and endothelin in the rat supraoptic nucleus. The Histochemical Journal 34:181-187.

Loesch A, Burnstock G (2002) Endothelin in human cerebrovascular nerves. Clinical Science 102: (Suppl.) 404S-407S.

Glass R, Loesch A, Bodin P, Burnstock G (2002) P2X4 and P2X6 receptors associate with VE-cadherin in human endothelial cells. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 59:870-881.

Loesch A, Glass R, Burnstock G (2002) Ultrastructural identification of P2Y2 receptor mRNA in the rat thymus. Cell Tissues Organs 172:255-264.

Loesch A (2002) Perivascular nerves and vascular endothelium: recent advances. Histology and Histopathology 17:591-597. Review.

Loesch A, Burnstock G (2001) Immunoreactivity to P2X6 receptors in the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system: an ultrastructural study with ExtrAvidin and colloidal gold-silver labelling. Neuroscience 106:621-632.

Loesch A, Burnstock G (2000) Ultrastructural localisation of ATP-gated P2X2 receptor immunoreactivity in vascular endothelial cells in rat brain. Endothelium 7:93-98.

Loesch A, Burnstock G (2000) Ultrastructural localization of arginine vasopressin in coronary vessels of newborn rat. Cell and Tissue Research 299:403-408.

Milner P, Loesch A, Burnstock G (2000) Neural endothelin in hypertension: increased immunoreactivity in ganglia and nerves to cerebral arteries of the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Journal of Vascular Research 37:39-49.

Milner P, Loesch A, Burnstock G (2000) Endothelin immunoreactivity and mRNA expression sensory and sympathetic neurones following selective denervation. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 18:727-734.

Harada H, Chan CM, Loesch A, Unwin R, Burnstock G (2000) Induction of proliferation and apoptotic cell death via P2Y and P2X receptors, respectively, in rat glomerular mesangial cells. Kidney International 57:949-958.

Rubino A, Loesch A, Burnstock G (1999) Nitric oxide and endothelin-1 in coronary and pulmonary circulation. International Review of Cytology 189:59-93. Review.

Loesch A, Burnstock G (1998) Perivascular nerve fibres and endothelial cells of rat basilar artery: immuno-gold labelling of antigenic sites for type I and type III nitric oxide synthase. Journal of Neurocytology 27:197-204.

Loesch A, Milner P, Burnstock K (1998) Endothelin in perivascular nerves: An electron-immunocytochemical study of rat basilar artery. NeuroReport 9:3903-3906.

Loesch A, Burnstock G (1998) The endothelium: electron-immunocytochemistry of vasoactive agents. In: JM Polak (Ed) Modern Visualisation of the Endothelium. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 3-44.

Milner P, Loesch A, Burnstock G (1997) Plasticity of expression of endothelial vasoactive agents. In: GVR Born and CJ Schwartz (Eds) Vascular Endothelium: Physiology, Pathology, and Therapeutic Opportunities. New Horizon Series, Vol.3, Schattauer, Stuttgart-New York, pp. 243-260.

Sosunov AA, Hassall CJS, Loesch A, Turmaine M, Burnstock G (1996) Nitric oxide synthase-containing neurones and nerve fibres within cardiac ganglia of rat and guinea-pig: an electron-microscope immunocytochemical study. Cell and Tissue Research 284:19-28.

Bates TE, Loesch A, Burnstock G, Clark JB (1996) Mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase: a ubiquitous regulator of oxidative phosphorylation? Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 218:40-44.

Loesch A, Burnstock G (1996) Immunocytochemistry of vasoactive agents and nitric oxide synthase in vascular endothelial cells with emphasis on the cerebral blood vessels. Cell Vision 3:346-357. Review.

Bates TE, Loesch A, Burnstock G, Clark JB (1995) Immunocytochemical evidence for a mitochondrially located nitric oxide synthase in brain and liver. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 213:896-900.

Bodin P, Loesch A, Milner P, Burnstock G (1994) Effects of increased flow on release of vasoactive substances from vascular endothelial cell. In: F Lyall and AJ El Haj (Eds) Biomechanics and Cells, Society of Experimental Biology. Seminar Series 54, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 37-60.

Loesch A, Burnstock G (1988) Ultrastructural ocalisation of serotonin and substance P in vascular endothelial cells of rat femoral and mesenteric arteries. Anatomy and Embryology 178:137-142.

Loesch A (1983) The effect of cerebral ischemia on the ultrastructure of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system of the mongolian gerbil. The supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science 61:545-556.

Loesch A (1981) The neurosecretory axons in the neurohypophysis of the rat: an electron microscopic study. Journal of Ultrastructure Research 77:344-353.