x-axis: time; y-axis: F0 in semitone (relative to 1 Hz); vertical lines: syllable boundaries; red dashed lines: hypothetical underlying pitch targets with pitch range adjustments; black solid line: simulated F0 curve.

**Lower Panel**

* Top row -- Categorical Parameters:*

__Tone (phrases separated by space)__:
H = High; R = Rising; L = Low;
F = Falling; N = Neutral (unstressed)

__Strength__:
s = strong; w = weak; n = normal

__Duration__:
l = long; s = short; n = normal

__Pitch range__:
h = high; l = low; w = wide; n = narrow; r = regular

* Lower rows -- Numerical Values of the Parameters: *

__Target:__

Slope: rising if > 0; falling if < 0; level if = 0.

Height: greater value = higher pitch

__Strength:__ greater value = weaker strength

__Range:__ high, low = raised or lowered height; wide, narrow = amount of expansion or compression

__Duration:__ long, short, normal: larger number = longer duratioin

__Initial F0:__ Initial pitch of the sentence

**Explanation**

__Basic Assumption__: Production of tone and intonation is a process of successively
implementing discrete local pitch targets at varying pitch ranges with different levels of strength.

__Local pitch targets__ are specified by the linear equation: y = b + a * x, where b is height and a is slope.

__Strength__ determines the amount of strength used to approach a local pitch target.
Greater strength leads to faster approximation.

__Pitch range__ specifies the range within which local pitch targets are implemented.
It is specified in terms of height -- h, l (high, low) and span -- w, n (wide, narrow).
Normal range = r (regular)

__Duration__ specifies syllable length -- l, s, n (long, short, normal).
The numerical values are arbitrary in the current implementation.

__Initial F0__ specifies the height of the very first F0 in the sentence.