Top Panel

x-axis: time; y-axis: F0 in semitone (relative to 1 Hz); vertical lines: syllable boundaries; red dashed lines: hypothetical underlying pitch targets with pitch range adjustments; black solid line: simulated F0 curve.

Lower Panel

Top row -- Categorical Parameters:

Tone (phrases separated by space): H = High; R = Rising; L = Low; F = Falling; N = Neutral (unstressed)
Strength: s = strong; w = weak; n = normal
Duration: l = long; s = short; n = normal
Pitch range: h = high; l = low; w = wide; n = narrow; r = regular

Lower rows -- Numerical Values of the Parameters:

  Slope: rising if > 0; falling if < 0; level if = 0.
  Height: greater value = higher pitch
Strength: greater value = weaker strength
Range: high, low = raised or lowered height; wide, narrow = amount of expansion or compression
Duration: long, short, normal: larger number = longer duratioin
Initial F0: Initial pitch of the sentence


Basic Assumption: Production of tone and intonation is a process of successively implementing discrete local pitch targets at varying pitch ranges with different levels of strength.

Local pitch targets are specified by the linear equation: y = b + a * x, where b is height and a is slope.

Strength determines the amount of strength used to approach a local pitch target. Greater strength leads to faster approximation.

Pitch range specifies the range within which local pitch targets are implemented. It is specified in terms of height -- h, l (high, low) and span -- w, n (wide, narrow). Normal range = r (regular)

Duration specifies syllable length -- l, s, n (long, short, normal). The numerical values are arbitrary in the current implementation.

Initial F0 specifies the height of the very first F0 in the sentence.