# The Target Approximation (TA) Model

*Syllable-synchronized sequential target approximation*

Xu & Wang (2001)

- Each syllable is associated with a pitch target
- A target is a linear function with a slope, so that it can be either static or dynamic
- The f0 of each syllable is generated by asymptotic approximation of its underlying pitch target
- At the syllable boundary, the underlying target abruptly shifts to the next one, and the final state of the current f0 movement becomes the initial state of the next syllable, which may result in a peak delay as shown in the graph
- The degree to which a target is achieved depends on the pitch distance that has to be covered and the speed at which the target is approached (determined by articulatory strength)
- Target approximation is therefore fully synchronized with the syllable
- Target approximation is also sequential, because there is no overlap between adjacent targets
- Each target approximation movement is cut short (or truncated) by the onset of the next movement, unless it is followed by a pause
- There is therefore neither anticipation of the next target nor carryover of the preceding target