Space Interests

space station


I have long had an interest in the future of space exploration, including both exploration within our own Solar System and the longer term possibilites for interstellar space flight. I am convinced that space exploration and development will prove to be of central importance for the future of humanity. In addition to its obvious scientific importance, I think an ambitious human space programme will offer significant social and cultural advantages, and these arguments are developed in some detail in the publications listed below.

In order to help further these objectives, and to mark the 40th anniversary of human spaceflight, I organised a one-day symposium on The Scientific Case for Human Spaceflight as part of the 2001 UK National Astronomy Meeting. This has been followed by Royal Astronomical Society Specialist Discussion meetings on the Scientific Case for Human Space Exploration on 10 December 2004, Astronomy from the Moon on 14 December 2007, Astrobiology on the Moon on 14 May 2010, Lunar Science as a Window into the Early Evolution of the Solar System and Conditions on the Early Earth on 9 November 2012, Science Enabled by the Global Exploration Roadmap on 8 November 2013, and The Use of Extraterrestrial Resources to Help Facilitate Space Science and Exploration on 8 April 2016.

In 2003 I was a member of the Human Spaceflight Vision Group (HSVG), established by the European Space Agency (ESA) to advise on future human space projects. The HSVG reported in December 2003 and recommended that ESA participate in sending astronauts back to the Moon, for a range of scientific, cultural, political and economic reasons. I was primarily responsible for collating the scientific case, which has been published in full as ``The scientific case for renewed human activities on the Moon'', Space Policy, 20, 91-97, (2004). These ideas have been further developed in a White Paper submitted to the US Space Studies Board's Decadal Survey of the Planetary Sciences ``The Scientific Rationale for Renewed Human Exploration of the Moon'', (September, 2009).

In 2007 I was a member of the UK Space Exploration Working Group, which recommended increased UK involvement in space exploration within the developing Global Exploration Strategy. In 2008 I became a member of the European Space Sciences Committee (ESSC) of the European Science Foundation, and in 2014 I was appointed to the European Space Agency's Human Spaceflight and Exploration Science Advisory Committee (HESAC) which is ESA's senior advisory committee for all matters relating to human space exploration.

A more detailed statement of my views on the scientific and cultural case for human space exploration can be found on the Case for Space webpage that I maintain.



Space-Related Publications


Space Policy

1.
Crawford, I.A., ``On the formation of a global space agency,'' Spaceflight, 23, 316-317, (1981).

2.
Crawford, I.A. ``Disarming for the future: turning swords into spaceships,'' New Scientist, 1717, 67-68, (19 May 1990).

3.
Crawford, I.A., ``Benefits of mission to Mars,'' Nature, 346, 504, (1990).

4.
Crawford, I.A., ``A space programme for Planet Earth,'' Spaceflight, 34, 121-124, (1992).

5.
Crawford, I.A., ``The starship as an exercise in world government,'' Spaceflight, 35, 188-190; 250-252, (1993).

6.
Crawford, I.A., ``To spread confident wings to space,'' New Scientist, 1904, 46 (18 Dec 1993).

7.
Crawford, I.A., "Space, World Government, and `The End of History'," J. Brit. Interplanetary Soc., 46, 415-420, (1993).

8.
Crawford, I.A., ``Space Development: Social and Political Implications,'' Space Policy, 11, 219-225, (1995).

9.
Crawford, I.A., ``The Scientific Case for Human Spaceflight'', Astronomy and Geophysics, 39(6), 14-17, (1998).

10.
Crawford, I.A., ``Why Send People into Space?,'' Astronomy Now, 15(4), 65-66, (2001).

11.
Crawford, I.A., ``The Case for Human Spaceflight,'' Science and Public Affairs, June 2001, 4, (2001).

12.
Crawford, I.A., ``The Scientific Case for Human Space Exploration,'' Space Policy, 17, 155-159, (2001).

13.
Crawford, I.A., ``The Scientific Case for a Human Spaceflight Infrastructure,'' Earth, Moon and Planets, 87(3), 221-231, (2001).

14.
Crawford, I.A., ``To Still Boldly Go'', first published in the political and cultural magazine Prospect , 84, 18-19, (March, 2003).

15.
Crawford, I.A., ``Aurora case stronger than suggested'', Research Fortnight, 28 April, (2004).

16.
Crawford, I.A., ''We're left behind in the space race'', Opinion in The Scotsman, 27 July 2005; p. 21.

17.
Crawford, I.A., ``Towards an Integrated Scientific and Social Case for Human Space Exploration,'' Earth, Moon and Planets, 94(3-4), 245-266, (2005).

18.
Crawford, I.A., ''Swords to Spaceships'', first published in the political and cultural magazine Prospect, 131, 14-15, (February 2007).

19.
Hapgood, M.A. and Crawford, I.A., "Space Exploration and the RAS", Astronomy & Geophysics, 48, 6.9-6.10, (2007).

20.
Crawford, I.A., "UK Participation in Human Space Exploration," Science and Public Affairs, September 2007, 6-7, (2007).

21.
Crawford, I.A., "Does the UK need a Space Agency?", Astronomy & Geophysics, 50, 1.7, (2009).

22.
Crawford, I.A., "Making our Presence Felt: The Scientific and Social Case for Human Space Exploration," Public Service Review: Science and Technology, 2, 28-29, (2009).

23.
Worms, J.-C., et al. (30 authors in total, including Crawford, I.A.), "ESSC-ESF Position Paper - A Science-Driven Scenario for Space Exploration: Report from the European Space Sciences Committee," Astrobiology, 9, 23-41, (2009).

24.
Crawford, I.A., "Astrobiological Benefits of Human Space Exploration", Astrobiology, 10, 577-587, (2010).

25.
Crawford, I.A., "Comments on 'Rationale for Flexible Path - A Space Exploration Strategy for the 21st Century'", J. Brit. Interplanet. Soc, 64, 92-94, (2011).

26.
Crawford, I.A., "Dispelling the myth of robotic efficiency: why human space exploration will tell us more about the Solar System than will robotic exploration alone", Astronomy and Geophysics, 53, 2.22-2.26, (2012).

27.
Crawford, I.A., "Stapledon's Interplanetary Man: A Commonwealth of Worlds and the Ultimate Purpose of Space Colonisation", J. Brit. Interplanet. Soc., 65, 13-19, (2012).

28.
Crawford, I.A., "Asteroids in the Service of Humanity", invited foreword to Asteroids: Prospective Energy and Material Resources, ed. V. Badescu, pp. vii-x (Springer, 2013).

29.
Baxter, S. and Crawford, I.A., "The Lethality of Interplanetary Warfare: A Fundamental Constraint on Extraterrestrial Liberty", in: The Meaning of Liberty Beyond Earth, ed. C.S. Cockell, pp. 187-198 (Springer, 2014).

30.
Crawford, I.A., "Interplanetary Federalism: Maximising the Chances of Extraterrestrial Peace, Diversity and Liberty", in: The Meaning of Liberty Beyond Earth, ed. C.S. Cockell, pp. 199-218 (Springer, 2014).

31.
Crawford, I.A., "The long-term scientific benefits of a space economy", Space Policy, 37, 58-61, (2016).

32.
Crawford, I.A., "Space, World Government, and a 'Vast Future' for Humanity", World Orders Forum, World Government Research Network, (2017).

33.
Crawford, I.A., "Widening Perspectives: The Intellectual and Social Benefits of Astrobiology, Big History, and the Exploration of Space", Journal of Big History, III(3), 205-224.



Lunar Exploration

1.
Crawford, I.A., "Space, next step is an international Moon base", Nature, 422, 373-4, (2003).

2.
Crawford, I.A., ``Back to the Moon?'', Astronomy & Geophysics, 44(2), 15-17, (2003).

3.
Crawford, I.A., ``The scientific case for renewed human activities on the Moon'', Space Policy, 20, 91-97, (2004).

4.
Crawford, I.A., ``Human exploration of the Moon and Mars: implications for Aurora'', Astronomy & Geophysics, 45(2), 28-29, (2004).

5.
Crawford, I.A., ``Back to the Moon,'' Popular Astronomy, 52(4), 7-9, (October 2005).

6.
Crawford, I.A., ``The astrobiological case for renewed robotic and human exploration of the Moon'', Internat. J. Astrobiology, 5, 191-197, (2006).

7.
Crawford, I.A., Fagents, S.A. and Joy, K.H., ''Full Moon Exploration'', Astronomy and Geophysics, 48, 3.18-3.21, (2007).

8.
Crawford, I.A. and Smith, A., ''MoonLITE: A UK-Led Mission to the Moon'', Astronomy and Geophysics, 49, 3.11-3.14, (2008).

9.
Joy, K.H., Crawford, I.A., Grindrod, P., Lintott, C., Bamford, S., Smith, A., Cook, A. and the Moon Zoo Team, ''Moon Zoo: Citizen Science in Lunar Exploration'', Astronomy and Geophysics, 52, 2.10-2.12, (2011).

10.
Schwandt, C., Hamilton, J.A., Fray, D.J. and Crawford, I.A., ''Oxygen from Lunar Regolith'', in Moon: Prospective Energy and Material Resources, ed. V. Badescu, pp. 165-187 (Springer, 2012).

11.
Crawford, I.A., "The Scientific Legacy of Apollo", Astronomy and Geophysics, 53, 6.24-6.28, (2012).

12.
Crawford, I.A., Joy, K.H. and Anand, M., "Lunar Exploration", Chapter 25 in Spohn, T., Johnson, T.V. and Breuer, D. (eds.) The Encyclopedia of the Solar System, 3rd edition, Springer; 555-579, (2014).
13.
Crawford, I.A., "The Moon as a Recorder of Nearby Supernovae", in: Alsabti, A.W. and Murdin, P. (eds.), Handbook of Supernovae, Springer International Publishing (2016).
14.
Crawford, I.A., "Why we should build a Moon Village", Astronomy and Geophysics, 58, 6.18-6.21, (2017).


Interstellar Space Flight
1.
Crawford, I.A., ``Interstellar Travel: a Review for Astronomers'', Q. J. R. Astr. Soc., 31, 377-400, (1990).

2.
Crawford, I.A., ``Interstellar Travel: a Review,'' in: Extraterrestrials: Where are They?, eds. B. Zuckerman and M. H. Hart, pp. 50-69, (Cambridge University Press, 1995).

3.
Crawford, I.A., ``Flight to the Stars,'' Sky and Space, 8(3), 14-18; 8(4), 20-23, (1995).

4.
Crawford, I.A., ``Some thoughts on the implications of faster-than-light interstellar space travel'', Q. J. R. Astr. Soc., 36, 205-218, (1995).

5.
Crawford, I.A., ''Flight to the Stars,'' Physics Review, 16(4), 2-5, (2007).

6.
Crawford, I.A., ''Sailing to the Stars,'' Physics Review, 17(2), 2-5, (2007).

7.
Crawford, I.A., ''Out of this World,'' Physics Review, 17(3), 26-29, (2008).

8.
Crawford, I.A., ''The Astronomical, Astrobiological and Planetary Science Case for Interstellar Spaceflight'', J. Brit. Interplanet. Soc., 62, 415-421, (2009).

9.
Crawford, I.A., ''A Comment on 'The Far Future of Exoplanet Direct Characterization' - The Case for Interstellar Space Probes'', Astrobiology, 10, 853-856, (2010).

10.
Crawford, I.A., ''Project Icarus: Astronomical Considerations Relating to the Choice of Target Star'', J. Brit. Interplanet. Soc., 63, 419-425, (2010).

11.
Crawford, I.A., ''Project Icarus: A Review of Local Interstellar Medium Properties of Relevance for Space Missions to the Nearest Stars'', Acta Astronautica, 68, 691-699, (2011).

12.
Baxter, S. and Crawford, I.A.,''Starship Destinations'', in: Starship Century: Toward the Grandest Horizon, eds. J. Benford and G. Benford, pp. 225-237, (Microwave Sciences/Lucky Bat Books, 2013).

13.
Crawford, I.A., ''Scientific and Societal Benefits of Interstellar Exploration'', in: Beyond the Boundary: Exploring the Science and Culture of Interstellar Spaceflight, ed. K.F. Long, pp. 14-42, (Initiative for Interstellar Studies/Lulu Publishing, 2014).

14.
Crawford, I.A., "Avoiding Intellectual Stagnation: The Starship as an Expander of Minds", J. Brit. Interplanet. Soc., 67, 253-257, (2014).

15.
Crawford, I.A., How to build a starship -- and why we should start thinking about it now, The Conversation (27 January, 2016).

16.
Crawford, I.A., "Project Icarus: Preliminary Thoughts on the Selection of Probes and Instruments for an Icarus-style Interstellar Mission", J. Brit. Interplanet. Soc., 69, 4-10, (2016).

17.
Crawford, I.A., "Direct Exoplanet Investigation Using Interstellar Space Probes", chapter in: Deeg, H.J., Belmonte, J.A. (eds.), Handbook of Exoplanets, Springer International Publishing (2017).


Life in the Universe
1.
Crawford, I.A., ``Where are all the extraterrestrials?,'' New Scientist, 2050, 52, (1996).

2.
Crawford, I.A., ``How common are technological civilisations in the Galaxy?,'' Astronomy and Geophysics, 38(4), 24-26, (1997).

3.
Crawford, I.A., ``Galactic civilisations: a reply,'' Astronomy and Geophysics, 38(6), 19, (1997).

4.
Crawford, I.A., ``Searching for Extraterrestrials: Where are They?'', Scientific American, July 2000, 38-43, (2000).
5.
Crawford, I.A., "Widening Perspectives: The Intellectual and Social Benefits of Astrobiology (Regardless of Whether Extraterrestrial Life is Discovered or Not)", Internat. J. Astrobiology, 17, 57-60, (2018).



Astronomy and Space Education
1.
Crawford, I.A., ``Wanderers in space: the case for peripatetic astronomy teachers,'' Astronomy Now, 5(10), 54, (1991).



Published Summaries of Space-Related Meetings
1.
Crawford, I.A. and Dunkin, S.K., The Scientific Case for Human Spaceflight, Astronomy and Geophysics, 42, 3.33-3.34 (2001).

2.
Crawford, I.A. and Cockell, C.S., The Scientific Case for Human Space Exploration, Astronomy and Geophysics, 46, 1.17-1.18 (2005).

3.
Crawford, I.A. and Anand, M., Exploring the Moon in the 21st Century, Astronomy and Geophysics, 47, 1.33-1.34 (2006).

4.
Ball, A.J. and Crawford, I.A., Which Way to the Moon?, A Report on NASA's Exploration Strategy Workshop, Washington, D.C., April 2006, Astronomy and Geophysics, 47, 4.17-4.19 (2006).

5.
Crawford, I.A., Anand, M., Ball, A.J. and Joy, K.H., Exploring the Moon: A UK Perspective, Astronomy and Geophysics, 49, 1.9-1.12 (2008).

6.
Crawford, I.A. and Zarnecki, J., Astronomy from the Moon, Astronomy and Geophysics, 49, 2.17-2.19 (2008).

7.
Crawford, I.A. and Cockell, C.S., Astrobiology on the Moon, Astronomy and Geophysics, 51, 4.11-4.14 (2010).

8.
Crawford, I.A., The Moon and the Early Earth, Astronomy and Geophysics, 54, 1.31-1.34 (2013).

9.
Crawford, I.A., Science Enabled by the Global Exploration Roadmap, Astronomy and Geophysics, 55, 3.20-3.23 (2014).

10.
Crawford, I.A., Elvis, M. and Carpenter, J., Using Extraterrestrial Resources for Science, Astronomy and Geophysics, 57, 4.32-4.36 (2016).

11.
Crawford, I.A., Big History and the Cosmic Perspective, Astronomy and Geophysics, 59, 5.33-5.36 (2018).

12.
Crawford, I.A., Expanding Worldviews: Cosmic Perspectives, Astronomy and Geophysics, 60, 6.36-6.40 (2019).


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