Research Interests

SMART1 goes to the Moon

In 2003 I shifted the balance of my research activities away from observational astronomy and into planetary science, focussing especially on the Moon. I was a co-investigator on the D-CIXS instrument (Demonstration of a Compact Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer), which orbited the Moon on ESA's SMART1 spacecraft between 2004 and 2006 (pictured opposite), and I chaired the Science Team for the Chandrayaan-1 X-Ray spectrometer (C1XS), on India's Chandrayaan-1 lunar mission launched in October 2008. These instruments provide compositional information about the lunar surface (in particular the abundances of magnesium, aluminium, silicon, calcium, titanium and iron) which will be used to constrain models of lunar evolution. Together with colleagues at Birkbeck College, University College and the Natural History Museum, I am involved in the geochemical and mineralogical analysis of lunar samples, in part with a view to using these samples of the Moon to calibrate and interpret lunar remote sensing data. I am also a member of the UK Lunar Penetrator Consortium, which aims to emplace geophysical instruments on the lunar surface, and acted as Project Scientist for the proposed UK-led MoonLITE mission for which I have helped define the scientific objectives. Last, but not least, I have a significant interest in defining the scientific case for renewed human exploration of the Moon, as set out in the following paper in Space Policy, and was a member of the UK Space Exploration Working Group in 2007, which recommended increased UK involvement in global space exploration.

My earlier astronomical research had mostly concerned the physics, chemistry, and dynamics of interstellar and circumstellar environments, as probed by high-resolution optical spectroscopy. This was largely based on the unique capabilities of the Ultra-High-Resolution Facility (UHRF) at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). With a resolving power of one million, the UHRF is the world's highest resolution astronomical spectrograph, and permitted significant advances in our understanding of the interstellar medium through its ability to resolve the intrinsic profiles of interstellar absorption lines. In the circumstellar field, my interests mainly concerned the study of circumstellar (presumably protoplanetary) disks and their central stars. Between 1998 and 2003 I held a PPARC (now STFC) Advanced Fellowship for research in these areas.

In addition to these planetary science and astronomical interests, I also have research interests in the new science of astrobiology and a major interest in the future of space exploration. In 2007 I was elected Geophysical Secretary, and in 2011 Senior Secretary, of the Royal Astronomical Society. In 2008 I became a member of the European Space Sciences Committee (ESSC) of the European Science Foundation, and in 2014 I was appointed to the European Space Agency's Human Spaceflight and Exploration Science Advisory Committee (HESAC).



Refereed Research Publications

1.
Crawford, I.A., Girdler, R.W. and Renner, R.G.B., `` An aeromagnetic study of the Staccato Peaks area, Alexander Island, Antarctica,'' British Antarctic Survey Bulletin, 70, 41-53, (1986).

2.
Crawford, I.A. and McNally, D., ``A search for the diffuse interstellar lines at 5780 and 5797 in the coma of comet Halley and the possible detection of an unidentified cometary absorption line,'' Observatory, 107, 20-24, (1987).

3.
Crawford, I.A., Rees, P.C.T. and Diego, F., ``Measurement of the instrumental response function of the Mount Stromlo coude echelle spectrograph,'' Observatory, 107, 147-153, (1987).

4.
Crawford, I.A., ``High resolution observations of interstellar Na I towards HD 174632,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 233, 923-928, (1988).

5.
Crawford, I.A., Barlow, M.J. and Blades, J.C., ``High resolution observations of interstellar Na I and Ca II towards the Scorpius OB1 association,'' Astrophys. J., 336, 212-230, (1989).

6.
Crawford, I.A., ``High resolution observations of interstellar CH and CH+ towards the Scorpius OB1 association,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 241, 575-594, (1989).

7.
Crawford, I.A., ``Observations of interstellar lines towards HD 110432,'' Observatory, 109, pp. 232-235, (1989).

8.
Crawford, I.A., ``The optical interstellar spectrum of HD 26571,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 243, 593-601, (1990).

9.
Crawford, I.A., ``Observations of interstellar CN and C2 towards the Scorpius OB1 association,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 244, 646-651, (1990).

10.
Crawford, I.A., ``The strength of the Ca II K and Na I D lines in the B stars: implications for interstellar studies,'' Observatory, 110, 145-149, (1990).

11.
Crawford, I.A., ``Further thoughts on the interstellar spectrum of HD 174632,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 250, 707-711, (1991).

12.
Crawford, I.A., ``Observations of interstellar lines towards HD 110432,'' Astron. Astrophys., 246, 210-212, (1991).

13.
Crawford, I.A., ``High resolution observations of interstellar Na I and Ca II lines towards the Scorpio-Centaurus association,'' Astron. Astrophys., 247, 183-201, (1991).

14.
Crawford, I.A. and Barlow, M.J., ``On the distance to M1-67,'' Astron. Astrophys., 249, 518-520, (1991).

15.
Crawford, I.A. and Barlow, M.J., ``The distance to the WN8 star We 21,'' Astron. Astrophys., 251, L39-L42, (1991).

16.
Crawford, I.A., ``Observations of interstellar Na I and Ca II towards five southern stars and some comments on the location of the denser diffuse clouds in the southern Milky Way,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 254, 264-272, (1992).

17.
Crawford, I.A., ``The interstellar spectrum of HD 175156,'' Observatory, 112, 161-167, (1992).

18.
Crawford, I.A., ``High-resolution observations of the interstellar NaI UV doublet and a discussion of the resulting NaI/CaII ratios,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 259, 47-62, (1992).

19.
Somerville, W.B. and Crawford, I.A., ``Observations of molecules in diffuse interstellar clouds,'' J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans., 89, 2261-2268, (1993).

20.
Crawford, I.A., Spyromilio, J., Barlow, M.J., Diego, F. and Lagrange, A.M., ``Ultra-high-resolution observations of Ca K line variations in the beta Pictoris disc,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 266, L65-L68, (1994).

21.
Crawford, I.A., Barlow, M.J., Diego, F., Spyromilio, J., ``First results from the UHRF: ultra-high-resolution observations of interstellar CH, CH+ and CN towards zeta Ophiuchi,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 266, 903-909, (1994).

22.
Crawford, I.A., ``An ultra-high-resolution search for interstellar Ca+ towards Alpha Centauri A,'' Observatory, 114, 288-293, (1994).

23.
Diego, F., Fish, A.C., Barlow, M.J., Crawford, I.A., Spyromilio, J., Dryburgh, M., Brooks, D., Howarth, I.D., and Walker, D.D., ``The Ultra-High-Resolution Facility at the Anglo-Australian Telescope,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 272, 323-332, (1995).

24.
Barlow, M.J., Crawford, I.A., Diego, F., Dryburgh, M., Fish, A.C., Howarth, I.D., Spyromilio, J., and Walker, D.D., ``First results from the UHRF: ultra-high-resolution observations of atomic interstellar lines towards zeta Ophiuchi,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 272, 333-345, (1995).

25.
Crawford, I.A. and Dunkin, S.K., ``Ultra-high-resolution observations of Ca+ ions in the local interstellar medium,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 273, 219-224, (1995).

26.
Crawford, I.A., ``Ultra-high-resolution observations of the intrinsic line profiles of interstellar CH, CH+ and CN,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 277, 458-470, (1995).

27.
Crawford, I.A. and Barlow, M.J., ``Ultra-high-resolution measurements of the intrinsic line profiles of interstellar C2 towards zeta Ophiuchi and HD 169454,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 280, 863-867, (1996).

28.
Crawford, I.A., Craig, N. and Welsh, B.Y., ``The velocity structure of the local interstellar medium probed by ultra-high-resolution spectroscopy,'' Astron. Astrophys., 317, 889-897, (1997).

29.
Blades, J.C., Sahu, M.S., He, L., Crawford, I.A., Barlow, M.J., and Diego, F., ``Ultra-high-resolution observations of interstellar Na I and Ca II toward the high-galactic latitude star HD 28497,'' Astrophys. J., 478, 648-657, (1997).

30.
Crawford, I.A., ``Ultra-high-resolution observations of interstellar C2, CH and CN towards zeta Ophiuchi and HD 169454,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 290, 41-48, (1997).

31.
Oudmaijer, R.D., Drew, J.E., Barlow, M.J., Crawford, I.A., and Proga, D., ``Helium absorption and emission towards theta-1 Ori C,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 291, 110-120, (1997).

32.
Crawford, I.A. and Williams, D.A., ``Detection of interstellar NH towards zeta Ophiuchi by means of ultra-high-resolution spectroscopy,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 291, L53-56, (1997).

33.
Crawford, I.A., Beust, H., and Lagrange, A.M., ``Detection of a strong transient blue-shifted absorption component in the beta Pictoris disk,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 294, L31-L34, (1998).

34.
Dunkin, S.K. and Crawford, I.A., ``Spatially resolved optical spectroscopy of the Herbig Ae/Vega-like binary star HD 35187,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 298, 275-284, (1998).

35.
Sahu, M.S., Blades, J.C., He, L., Hartmann, D.A.P., Barlow, M.J., and Crawford, I.A., ``Atomic and molecular interstellar absorption lines toward the high galactic latitude stars HD 141569 and HD 157841,'' Astrophys. J., 504, 522-532, (1998)

36.
Welsh, B.Y., Craig, N., Crawford, I.A., and Price, R.J., ``Beta Pic-like circumstellar disk gas surrounding HR 10 and HD 85905,'' Astron. Astrophys., 338, 674-682, (1998).

37.
Beust, H., Lagrange, A.-M., Crawford, I.A., Goudard, C., Spyromilio, J., and Vidal-Madjar, A., ``The beta Pictoris disk XXV: The Ca II absorption lines and the falling evaporating bodies model revisited using UHRF observations,'' Astron. Astrophys., 338, 1015-1030, (1998).

38.
Crawford, I.A., Lallement, R., Welsh, B.Y., ``Additional ultra-high-resolution observations of Ca+ ions in the local interstellar medium,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 300, 1181-1188, (1998).

39.
Dunkin, S.K. and Crawford, I.A., ``The optical interstellar spectrum of kappa Vel (HD 81188) and a measurement of interstellar cloud turbulence,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 302, 197-202, (1999).

40.
Crawford, I.A. and Barlow, M.J., ``Ultra-high-resolution observations of circumstellar KI and C2 around the post-AGB star HD 56126,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 311, 370-376, (2000).

41.
Price, R.J., Crawford, I.A. and Barlow, M.J., ``Detection of a variable interstellar absorption component towards delta Orionis A,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 312, L43-L48, (2000).

42.
Crawford, I.A., ``A study of interstellar NaI D absorption lines towards the Lupus molecular clouds," Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 317, 996-1004, (2000).

43.
Crawford, I.A., Howarth, I.D., Ryder, S.D., and Stathakis, R.A., ``Kappa Velorum: another variable interstellar sightline?," Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 319, L1-L6, (2000).

44.
Price, R.J., Crawford, I.A. and Howarth, I.D., ``Delta Orionis: further temporal variability and evidence for small-scale structure in the interstellar medium,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 321, 553-558, (2001).

45.
Crawford, I.A., ``An ultra-high-resolution study of the interstellar medium in the direction of alpha Ophiuchi," Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 327, 841-848, (2001).

46.
Price, R.J., Crawford, I.A., Barlow, M.J., and Howarth, I.D., ``An ultra-high-resolution study of the interstellar medium towards Orion," Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 328, 555-582, (2001).

47.
Crawford, I.A., ``Ultra-high-resolution observations of interstellar NaI and KI towards the Scorpius OB1 association," Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 328, 1115-1124, (2001).

48.
Crawford, I.A., ``Detection of CaI and CH absorption at the velocity of the variable interstellar component towards kappa Velorum,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 334, L33-L37, (2002).

49.
Andersson, B.-G., Wannier, P.G. and Crawford, I.A., ``Ultra-high-resolution observations of CH in southern molecular cloud envelopes,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 334, 327-337, (2002).

50.
Howarth, I.D., Price, R.J., Crawford, I.A., and Hawkins, H., ``A VAPID analysis of interstellar lithium in the zeta Oph sightline,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 335, 267-274, (2002).

51.
Crawford, I.A., Lallement, R., Price, R.J., Sfeir, D.M., Wakker, B.P., and Welsh, B.Y., ``High-resolution observations of interstellar Na I and Ca II towards the southern opening of the `Local Interstellar Chimney': probing the disk-halo connection,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 337, 720-730, (2002).

52.
Crawford, I.A., ``Variable interstellar absorption lines: a brief review,'' Astrophys. Space Sci., 285, 661-675, (2003).

53.
Bell, T.A., Viti, S., Williams, D.A., Crawford, I.A., and Price, R.J., ``The chemistry of transient microstructures in the diffuse interstellar medium,'' Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 357, 961-966, (2005).

54.
Joy, K.H., Crawford, I.A., Downes, H., Russell, S.S., and Kearsley, A.T., ``A Petrological, Mineralogical and Chemical Analysis of the Lunar Mare Basalt Meteorites LaPaz Icefield 02205, 02224 and 02226,'' Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 41, 1003-1025, (2006).

55.
Crawford, I.A., ''The Astrobiological Case for Renewed Robotic and Human Exploration of the Moon,'' Internat. J. Astrobiology, 5, 191-197, (2006).

56.
Grande, M., et al. (31 authors, including Joy, K.H. and Crawford, I.A.), ''The D-CIXS X-Ray spectrometer on the SMART-1 mission to the Moon - First results,'' Planet. Space Sci., 55, 494-502, (2007).

57.
Roberts, G.P., Crawford, I.A., Peacock, D., Vetterlein, J., Parfitt, E., and Bishop., L., ''Possible evidence for on-going volcanism on Mars as suggested by thin, elliptical sheets of low-albedo particulate material around pits and fissures close to Cerberus Fossae,'' Earth, Moon and Planets, 101, 1-16, (2007).

58.
Patat, F., et al. (22 authors, including Crawford, I.A.), ''Detection of Circumstellar Material in a Normal Type Ia Supernova,'' Science, 317, 924-926, (2007).

59.
Baldwin, E.C., Milner, D.J., Burchell, M.J., and Crawford, I.A., "Laboratory impacts into dry and wet sandstone with and without an overlying water layer: implications for scaling laws and projectile survivability," Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 42, 1905-1914, (2007).

60.
Gao, Y., Phipps, A., Taylor, M., Crawford, I.A., Ball, A.J., Wilson, L., Parker, D., Sweeting, M., da Silva Curie, A., Davies, P., Baker, A., Pike, W.T., Smith, A., and Gowen, R., "Lunar Science with Affordable Small Spacecraft Technologies: MoonLITE and Moonraker," Planet. Space Sci., 56, 368-377, (2008).

61.
Crawford, I.A., Baldwin, E.C., Taylor, E.A., Bailey, J. and Tsembelis, K., "On the survivability and detectability of terrestrial meteorites on the Moon," Astrobiology, 8, 242-252, (2008).

62.
Bowden, S.A., Court, R.W., Milner, D., Baldwin, E., Lindgren, P., Crawford, I.A., Parnell, J., and Burchell, M.J., "The thermal alteration by pyrolysis of the organic component of small projectiles of mudrock during capture at hypervelocity," J. Analytical Applied Pyrolysis, 82, 312-314, (2008).

63.
Joy, K.H., Crawford, I.A., Anand, M., Greenwood, R.C., Franchi, I.A., and Russell, S.S., "The Petrology and Geochemistry of Miller Range 05035: A New Lunar Gabbroic Meteorite," Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 72, 3822-3844, (2008).

64.
Smith, A., Crawford, I.A., Gowen, R., et al. (39 authors in total), "LunarEX: A Propoasal to Cosmic Vision," Experimental Astronomy, 23, 711-740, (2009).

65.
Cousins, C.R., Smellie, J.E., Jones, A.P., and Crawford, I.A., "A Comparative Study of Endolithic Microborings in Basaltic Lavas from a Transitional Subglacial Marine Environment," Internat. J. Astrobiology, 8, 37-49, (2009).

66.
Grande, M., et al. (30 authors in total, including Crawford, I.A. and Joy, K.H.), ''The C1XS X-Ray spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1,'' Planet. Space Sci., 57, 717-724, (2009).

67.
Crawford, I.A., Joy, K.H., Kellett, B.J., et al. (26 authors in total), "The Scientific Rationale for the C1XS X-Ray Spectrometer on India's Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon," Planet. Space Sci., 57, 725-734, (2009).

68.
Swinyard, B.M., Joy, K.H., Kellett, B.J., Crawford, I.A., et al. (13 authors in total), "X-ray Fluorescence Observations of the Moon by SMART-1/D-CIXS and the First Detection of Ti K-alpha from the Lunar Surface," Planet. Space Sci., 57, 744-750, (2009).

69.
Grande, M. et al. (8 authors in total, including Crawford, I.A.), "The Chandrayaan-1 X-Ray Spectrometer," Current Science, 96, 517-519, (2009).

70.
Alha, L. et al. (13 authors in total, including Crawford, I.A.), "Ground calibration of the Chandrayaan-1 X-ray solar monitor (XSM)," Nuclear Instruments and Methods, 607, 544-553, (2009).

71.
Rothery, D.A., et al., (25 authors, including Crawford, I.A.), "Mercury's surface and composition to be studied by Bepi Colombo", Planet. Space Sci., 58, 21-39, (2010).

72.
Fagents, S.A., Rumpf, M.E., Crawford, I.A. and Joy, K.H., "Preservation Potential of Implanted Solar Wind Volatiles in Lunar Palaeoregolith Deposits Buried by Lava Flows," Icarus, 207, 595-604, (2010).

73.
Joy, K.H., Crawford, I.A., Russell, S.S. and Kearsley, A.T., "Lunar Meteorite Regolith Breccias: an in situ Study of Impact Melt Composition using LA-ICP-MS with Implications for the Composition of the Lunar Crust," Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 45, 917-946, (2010).

74.
Weider, S.Z., Crawford, I.A. and Joy, K.H., "Individual lava flow thicknesses in Oceanus Procellarum and Mare Serenitatis determined from Clementine multi-spectral data," Icarus, 209, 323-336, (2010).

75.
Burchell, M.J., Parnell, J., Bowden, S.A. and Crawford, I.A., "Hypervelocity Impact Experiments in the Laboratory Relating to Lunar Astrobiology," Earth, Moon and Planets, 107, 55-64, (2010).

76.
Crawford, I.A., Fagents, S.A., Joy, K.H. and Rumpf, M.E., "Lunar Palaeoregolith Deposits as Recorders of the Galactic Environment of the Solar System and Implications for Astrobiology," Earth, Moon and Planets, 107, 75-85, (2010).

77.
Cousins, C.R., Griffiths, A.D., Crawford, I.A., et al. (10 authors in total), "Astrobiological Considerations for the Selection of the Geological Filters on the ExoMars PanCam Instrument," Astrobiology, 10, 933-951, (2010).

78.
Parnell, J., Bowden, S., Lingren, P., Burchell, M., Milner, D., Price, M., Baldwin, E.C. and Crawford, I.A., "The preservation of fossil biomarkers during meteorite impact events: experimental evidence from biomarker-rich projectiles and target rocks", Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 45, 1340-1358, (2010).

79.
Gowen, R. et al. (47 authors, including Crawford, I.A.), "Penetrators for in situ sub-surface investigations of Europa," Adv. Space Res., 48, 725-742, (2011).

80.
Narendranath, S. et al. (21 authors, including Crawford, I.A.), "Lunar X-ray fluorescence observations by the Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS): Results from the nearside southern highlands," Icarus, 214, 53-66, (2011).

81.
Joy, K.H., Burgess, R., Hinton, R., Fernandes, V.A., Crawford, I.A., Kearsley, A.T. and Irving, A.J., "Petrogenesis and Chronology of Lunar Meteorite North West Africa 4472: A KREEPy Regolith Breccia from the Moon", Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75, 2420-2452, (2011).

82.
Weider, S.Z., Swinyard, B.M., Kellett, B.J., Howe, C.J., Joy, K.H., Crawford, I.A., Gow, J. and Smith, D.R., "Planetary X-Ray Fluorescence Analogue Laboratory Experiments and an Elemental Abundance Algorithm for C1XS", Planet. Space Sci., 59, 1393-1407, (2011).

83.
Cousins, C.R and Crawford, I.A., "Volcano-Ice Interaction as a Microbial Habitat on Earth and Mars", Astrobiology, 11, 695-710, (2011).

84.
Snape, J.F., Joy, K.H. and Crawford, I.A., "Characterization of Multiple Lithologies within the Lunar Feldspathic Regolith Breccia Meteorite North East Africa 001", Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 46, 1288-1312, (2011).

85.
Smith, A., Crawford, I.A., Gowen, R.A., et al. (61 authors in total), "Lunar Net -- A proposal in response to an ESA M3 call in 2010 for a medium sized mission", Experimental Astronomy, 33, 587-644, (2012).

86.
Weider, S.Z., Kellett, B.J., Swinyard, B.M., Crawford, I.A., Joy, K.H., et al. (33 authors in total), "The Chandrayaan-1 X-Ray Spectrometer: First Results", Planet. Space Sci., 60, 217-228, (2012).

87.
Cousins, C.R., Gunn, M., Prosser, B.J., Barnes, D.P., Crawford, I.A., Griffiths, A.D., Davis, L.E., Coates, A.J., "Selecting the Geology Filter Wavelengths for the ExoMars Panoramic Camera Instrument", Planet. Space Sci., 71, 80-100, (2012).

88.
Crawford, I.A., Anand, M., Cockell, C.S., Falcke, H., Green, D.A., Jaumann, R. and Wieczorek, M.A.,''Back to the Moon: The Scientific Rationale for Resuming Lunar Surface Exploration'', Planet. Space Sci., 74, 3-14, (2012).

89.
Schwandt, C., Hamilton, J.A., Fray, D.J. and Crawford, I.A., ''The Production of Oxygen and Metal from Lunar Regolith'', Planet. Space Sci., 74, 49-56, (2012).

90.
Bamford, R.A., Kellett, B., Bradford, W.J., Norberg, C., Thornton, A., Gibson, K.J., Crawford, I.A., Silva, L., Gargate, L., Bingham, R., ''Mini-magnetospheres above the lunar surface and the formation of lunar swirls'', Phys. Rev. Lett., 109, 081101, (2012).

91.
Coates, A.J. et al. (12 authors in total, including Crawford, I.A.), ''Lunar PanCam: adapting ExoMars PanCam for the ESA Lunar Lander'', Planet. Space Sci., 74, 247-253, (2012).

92.
De Rosa, D., Bussey, B., Cahill, J.T., Lutz, T., Crawford, I.A., et al. (12 authors in total), ''Characterisation of Potential Landing Sites for the European Space Agency’s Lunar Lander Project'', Planet. Space Sci., 74, 224-246, (2012).

93.
Anand, M., Crawford, I.A., Balat-Pichelin, M., Abanades, S., van Westrenen, W., Péraudeau, G., Jaumann, R., Seboldt, W., ''A brief review of chemical and mineralogical resources on the Moon and likely initial ISRU applications'', Planet. Space Sci., 74, 42-48, (2012).

94.
Jaumann, R., Hiesinger, H., Anand, M., Crawford, I.A., et al. (21 authors in total), ''Geology, Geochemistry, and Geophysics of the Moon: Status of Current Understanding'', Planet. Space Sci., 74, 15-41, (2012).

95.
Bryant, D.E. et al. (14 authors in total, including Crawford, I.A.), ''Hydrothermal modification of the Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite under low pH geothermal conditions: a plausibly prebiotic route to activated phosphorus on the early Earth'', Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 109, 90-112, (2013).

96.
Cousins, C.R., Crawford, I.A., Carrivick, J.L., Gunn, M., Harris, J., Kee, T.P., Karlsson, M., Carmody, L., Cockell, C., Herschy, B., Joy, K.H., ''Glaciovolcanic hydrothermal environments in Iceland and implications for their detection on Mars'', Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 256, 61-77, (2013).

97.
Rumpf, M.E., Fagents, S.A., Crawford, I.A. and Joy, K.H., ''Numerical modeling of lava-regolith heat transfer on the Moon and implications for the preservation of implanted volatiles'', Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets), 118, 382-397, (2013).

98.
Weider, S.Z., Joy, K.H., Crawford, I.A., Kellett, B.J., Swinyard, B.M. and Howe, C.J., "Western Oceanus Procellarum as seen by C1XS on Chandrayaan-1", Icarus, 229, 254-262, (2014).

99.
Joy, K.H., Crawford, I.A., Huss, G.R., Nagashima, K. and Taylor, G.J., "An unusual clast in lunar meteorite MacAlpine Hills 88105: a unique lunar sample or projectile debris?", Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 49, 677-695, (2014).

100.
Snape, J.F., Joy, K.H., Crawford, I.A. and Alexander, L., "Basaltic diversity at the Apollo 12 landing site: inferences from petrologic examinations of the soil sample 12003", Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 49, 842-871, (2014).

101.
Alexander, L., Snape, J.F., Crawford, I.A., Joy, K.H. and Downes, H., "Searching for non-local lithologies in the Apollo 12 regolith: a geochemical and petrological study of basaltic coarse fines from the Apollo lunar soil sample 12023,155", Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 49, 1288-1304, (2014).

102.
Crawford, I.A. and Joy, K.H., "Lunar exploration: opening a window into the history and evolution of the inner solar system", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, A372, 20130315: 1-21, (2014).

103.
Bamford, R.A. et al. (11 authors in total, including Crawford, I.A.), "An exploration of the effectiveness of artificial mini-magnetospheres as a potential solar storm shelter for long term human space missions", Acta Astronautica, 105, 385-394, (2014).

104.
Matthewman, R., Court, R.W., Crawford, I.A., Jones, A.P., Joy, K.H. and Sephton, M.A., "The Moon as a recorder of organic evolution in the early Solar System: a lunar regolith analogue study", Astrobiology, 15, 154-168, (2015).

105.
Calzada-Diaz, A., Joy, K.H., Crawford, I.A. and Nordheim, T.A.,"Constraining the source regions of lunar meteorites using orbital geochemical data", Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 50, 214-228, (2015).

106.
Crawford, I.A., "Lunar Resources: A Review", Progress in Physical Geography, 39, 137-167, (2015).

107.
Harris, J.K, Cousins, C.R., Gunn, M., Grindrod, P.M., Barnes, D., Crawford, I.A., Cross, R.E. and Coates, A.J., "Remote detection of past habitability at Mars-analogue hydrothermal alteration terrains using an ExoMars Panoramic Camera Emulator", Icarus, 252, 284-300, (2015).

108.
Bugiolacchi, R., Bamford, S., Tar, P., Thacker, N., Crawford, I.A., Joy, K.H., Grindrod, P.M. and Lintott, C., "The Moon Zoo citizen science project: Preliminary results for the Apollo 17 landing site", Icarus 271, 30-48, (2016).

109.
Alexander, L., Snape, J.F., Joy, K.H., Downes, H. and Crawford, I.A., "An analysis of Apollo lunar soil samples 12070,889, 12030,187 and 12070,891: Basaltic diversity at the Apollo 12 landing site and implications for classification of small-sized lunar samples", Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 51, 1654-1677, (2016).

110.
Snape, J.F., Nemchin, A.A., Bellucci, J.J., Whitehouse, M.J., Tartese, R., Barnes, J.J., Anand, M., Crawford, I.A. and Joy, K.H., "Lunar basalt chronology, mantle differentiation and implications for determining the age of the Moon", Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 451, 149-158, (2016).

111.
Joy, K.H., Crawford, I.A., Curran, N.M., Zolensky, M., Fagan, A.L. and Kring, D.A.,"The Moon: An archive of small body migration in the Solar System", Earth, Moon & Planets, 118, 133-158, (2016).

112.
Matthewman, R., Crawford, I.A., Jones, A.P., Joy, K.H. and Sephton, M.A.,"Organic matter response to radiation under lunar conditions", Astrobiology, 16, 900-912, (2016).

113.
Calzada-Diaz, A., Joy, K.H., Crawford, I.A. and Strekopytov, S., "The petrology, geochemistry and age of lunar regolith breccias Miller Range 090036 and 090070: insights into the crustal history of the Moon", Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 52, 3-23, (2017).

114.
Hales, A.S., Barlow, M.J., Crawford, I.A., and Casassus, S., "Atomic gas in debris discs", Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 466, 3582-3593, (2017).

115.
Coates, A.J., et al. (23 authors in total, including Crawford, I.A.), "The PanCam Instrument for the ExoMars Rover", Astrobiology, 17, 511-541, (2017).

116.
Cousins, C.R., Fogel, M., Bowden, R., Crawford, I.A., Boyce, A., Cockell, C.S., and Gunn, M., "Biogeochemical probing of microbial communities in a basalt-hosted hot spring at Kverkfjoll volcano, Iceland," Geobiology, 16, 507-521, (2018).

117.
Schulze-Makuch, D., and Crawford, I.A., "Was there an early habitability window for Earth's Moon?", Astrobiology, 18, 985-988, (2018).

118.
Flahaut, J., Carpenter, J., Williams, J.-P., Anand, M., Crawford, I.A., van Westrenen, W., Furi, E., Xiao, L., and Zhao, S., "Regions of Interest (ROI) for future exploration missions to the lunar South Pole", Planetary and Space Science, 180, 104750, (2020).

119.
Curran, N.,Nottingham, M., Alexander, L., Crawford, I.A., Furi, E., and Joy, K.H., "A database of noble gases in lunar samples in preparation for mass spectrometry on the Moon", Planetary and Space Science, 182, 104823, (2020).


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